Objective: Introduction to visual factors, particularly scanning to avoid collisions

Content: Scanning and attention division, clearing procedures, aircraft blind spots, illusions, collision hazards

Airworthy aircraft. PTS. Model planes (blind spots)

Ground lesson: 15 minutes
Instructor demonstration: throughout training
Student practice: throughout training
Postflight feedback: as necessary

Preflight: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, list common errors, discuss.
In flight: Demonstrate correct visual scanning and clearing procedures, and expect those from students at all appropriate times.
Postflight: Give feedback and suggestions.

Preflight: Attend to explanation, answer questions
In flight: Scan and clear, attending to blind spots, focusing on seeing and avoiding other aircraft
Postflight: Ask questions.

Completion Standards:
Student demonstrates understanding of "see and avoid" concept by proper continuous scanning, clearing areas before taxiing, and before and during maneuvers in flight; shows knowledge of physical and environmental degraders of vision; can identify blind spots for high-wing and low-wing aircraft; understands situations that involve collision risk.


Review: Aeromedical factors related to vision
Objective: Scanning and attention division, clearing procedures, aircraft blind spots, illusions, collision hazards

INTRODUCTION: Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
Instrument pilots can "fly blind" in the clouds, so to speak, but there are no blind pilots. Easy to see why, isn't it? And yet there are pilots who fly without ever really looking around. Remember this: most in-air collisions happen on beautiful, VFR days. Flight instructors are on board in 37 percent of mid-airs. Why would that be? How can this be avoided?

DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation: (10 minutes)
1. Stay healthy: vision is harmed by smoking, drugs, alcohol, oxygen deprivation, lack of vitamins
2. "See and avoid" concept: constantly look outside for other traffic. It is your responsibility, and also the law. Maintain situational awareness inside and outside the cockpit
3. Illusions and degraders of visual reliability: autokinesis, haze, false horizons, featureless terrain, cluttered background, empty field myopia, runway slope/width, night, rain, sun in the eyes, dirty windshield
4. Visual scanning technique: 10º segments, up and down, stopping eyes and checking for motion in the periphery
5. Clear at all times, but particularly in situations of risk (AFH p. 1-4): before taxi (avoid runway incursions), before takeoff when turning, in descents and climbs, at all points in traffic patterns (dip wings both directions), over VORs, before maneuvers, periodically during straight-and-level
6. Clearing turns are 180º worth.
7. Use proper radio procedures at and around airports.

Common errors: (1 minute)

Ignoring the "see and avoid" concept
Fixating on tasks inside the cockpit
Not communicating with other aircraft near airports
Not dipping wings in both directions before turns
Forgetting to clear before maneuvers

Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions: (3 minutes)
Q: Where are the blind spots in your aircraft? How do you overcome them?
Q: Name some situations that demand extra clearing vigilance/procedures.
Q: At what points should you communicate when landing at an uncontrolled airport?