"The objective of this maneuver is to develop the pilot's coordination, orientation, planning, and feel for maximum performance flight, and to develop positive control techniques at varying airspeeds and attitudes." (AFH p. 6-16). In other words, the student pilot will be using "maximum performance," which means flying a plane close to its limits in a precision way, in this case executing a precise turn while looking for a maximum-pitch climb.
Chandelle: a 180-degree turn starting straight-and-level, going through a 30-degree bank, and ending at wings level with a nose-high attitude near the minimum controllable airspeed.
Airworthy aircraft. PTS. Visual aids (AFH figure 6-16).
(Can be combined with other maneuvers)
Ground lesson: 15 minutes
Instructor demonstration: 10 minutes
Student practice: 20 minutes
Postflight feedback: 5 minutes
Preflight: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, have student be an armchair pilot, list common errors, discuss.
In flight: Demonstrate proper chandelle while talking through it. Coach and encourage student.
Postflight: Give feedback and suggestions.
Preflight: Attend to explanation, be an armchair pilot, answer questions
In flight: Perform new maneuver after demonstration
Postflight: Ask questions.
As per the PTS: Exhibits knowledge. Starts at +1500 AGL. Establishes appropriate entry speed and enters approximately, but not more than 30º of bank. Simultaneously applies power and pitch to enter a smooth coordinated climbing turn. At the 90º point starts a smooth rollout with constant pitch so that at the 180º point wings are level, +/-10º, at stall speed +5/-0. Reduces pitch attitude to resume straight-and-level flight at that altitude +/-50 ft.
Review: Steep turns, climbs, accelerated stalls
Objective: To prepare a student for chandelle practice once in the air.
INTRODUCTION: Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
This maneuver is an introduction to what the AFH calls "maximum performance flight." We've already done one maximum-performance thing: the takeoff. What does this term mean? This particular maneuver will show your ability to control the pitch of a climb while maintaining a beautiful turn.
DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation: ( minutes)
1. CLEAR THE AREA
2. Set cruise power at altitude, and find an abeam point or note heading
3. Straight-and level flight, and start the maneuver:
4. Enter a 30º coordinated turn.
5. Apply back elevator pressure (and increase power*) to increase pitch constantly until:
6. At the 90º point, maximum pitch, 30º bank. Start to roll out.
7. Keep pitch constant and keep rolling out
8. At 180º point, pitch just above stall speed, wings level.
9. Gradually pitch down to resume straight-and-level at that altitude +/- 50 ft.
NOTE: *1) *Important: in a fixed-pitch prop plane, apply full throttle smoothly. In a constant-speed prop plane, power may be left at cruise setting. 2) During rollout after the 90º point, there will be a slight increase in the vertical component of lift, so a slight easing of back pressure may be required to keep from climbing. 3) Since airspeed is constantly decreasing during the maneuver, effects of torque become more pronounced and appropriate (right) rudder control will be needed, even in a left turn. Keep the ball centered.
Armchair piloting: (5 minutes)
Student simulates chandelles and I kibitz.
Common errors: (2 minutes)
Not clearing the area
Improper pitch/power/bank coordination at the various stages of the maneuver
Poor planning and timing
Excessive deviation from heading upon completion
Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions:
Q: What are the PTS standards?
Q: What yawing effects might you expect during the rollout in a chandelle to the left? To the right?
Q: Does the plane you're in require a power increase? What are the criteria, according to the AFH?