Learning use of controls, instrument interpretation, use of outside reference, trimming aircraft, methods to overcome tenseness and overcontrolling. Lessons are conducted using Integrated Flight Instruction: both with reference to instruments and outside references, right from the start.

Straight-and-level flight, level turns, straight climbs and climbing turns, straight descents and descending turns

Airworthy aircraft. PTS. Visual aids (Jeppesen Commercial pp. 14-22, 14-23).

Ground: 15 minutes
Instructor demonstration: 5 minutes
Student practice: 30 minutes
Post-flight feedback: 5 minutes

Preflight: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, list common errors, discuss.
In flight: Demonstrate when necessary, but most of these fundamental maneuvers should be achievable simply through coaching. Teach and encourage student.
Postflight: Give feedback and suggestions.

Preflight: Attend to explanation, answer questions
In flight: Try out the controls, and relax as much as possible
Postflight: Ask questions.

Completion Standards:
Shows control of the aircraft during fundamental maneuvers: can hold altitude and heading in straight-and-level, can make a coordinated turn to a heading, uses power control for climb and descent (more right rudder), shows understanding of the operation of the yoke and rudder pedals.


Review: Flight controls and control surfaces. Flight instruments.
Objective: Learning use of controls, instrument interpretation, use of outside reference, trimming aircraft, methods to overcome tenseness and overcontrolling, and gaining understanding of the fundamental control of the aircraft for straight-and-level, turning, climbing, and descending. Using "Integrated Flight Instruction": both by reference to instruments and outside reference, right from the start.
Materials: Model airplane

INTRODUCTION: Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
There are four basic things that a plane can do: what are they? I'll give you a hint. One of them is "climb." Today we're going to get into the basics of all four.

DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation: (10 minutes)
This lesson will cover four areas: straight-and-level flight, turning, climbing, and descending. Climbing and descending will also be done while turning. All of these skills involve the same elements:
1. Use of the flight controls (yoke and rudder)
2. Power control
3. Trim
4. Interpretation of outside references, as well as instruments, for pitch, bank, and power
5. Overcoming tenseness and overcontrolling: Breathe. Relax. Put your shoulders down. Smile. Look outside. Enjoy the fact that you're flying. Take in the view. Anxiety is normal, so don't worry about that, either.
Terminology: "Back pressure" and "forward pressure" on the yoke. Names of the flight instruments. "Yaw," "roll," "pitch."

Common errors: (2 minutes)
    Overcontrolling. (Make small adjustments. It's like learning to walk, or stand up: eventually you make little corrections all the time, rather than big adjustments occasionally.)
    Pushing the rudder pedals the wrong way. (I did that, too. THE WORLD ACCORDING TO BYRON: "It don't work like your Flexible Flyer, now, does it?")
    Tensing up. It's normal, so nothing to worry about.

Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions: (3 minutes)
Q: (Don't ask this question except if it's necessary in the plane, or as a post-flight question.) What kinds of things do you (the student) do when you feel tense, to loosen up?
Q: What happens when you apply back pressure to the yoke? When you push it forward? When you turn it one way or the other?
Q: What happens when you push on the right rudder. On the left?
Q: If you want to climb, you'll need some extra power. Where does it come from?