Objective: Traffic pattern work, including normal approach and landing. (Takeoff and climb is in another lesson plan)
Content: Pattern work including use of checklists, communications, area clearing, airspeeds and altitudes, use of power, flaps, BCGUMPS check, wind correction. ALSO: Traffic pattern procedures: entry, clearing, radio procedures at uncontrolled and controlled airports, traffic spacing, wind shear and wake turbulence, orientation
Airworthy aircraft. Sectional charts. A/FD. PTS. Handout on traffic pattern
Ground lesson: 50 minutes
Instructor demonstration: 15 minutes
Student practice: 45 minutes
Postflight feedback: 5 minutes
Preflight: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, have student be an armchair pilot, list common errors, discuss.
In flight: Demonstrate two traffic patterns while talking through them. Coach and encourage student.
Postflight: Give feedback and suggestions.
Preflight: Attend to explanation, be an armchair pilot, answer questions
In flight: Fly several traffic patterns, each time taking on more of the actions with less coaching
Postflight: Ask questions.
TRAFFIC PATTERN: Understands proper entry and orientation in the traffic pattern. Divides attention, establishes correct final approach, uses checklists.
APPROACH AND LANDING: Selects a suitable touchdown point, establishes recommended configuration , accounts for wind & turbulence & wind shear, maintains stabilized approach and recommended airspeed ±5 (commercial) +10/-5 (private), lands within 200 ft (commercial) 400ft (private) with no drift, smoothly and near stall speed, completes checklists
Review: Normal and crosswind takeoff
Objective: Pattern work including use of checklists,
communications, area clearing, airspeeds and altitudes, use of
power, flaps, BCGUMPS check, wind correction. ALSO: Traffic pattern
procedures: entry, clearing, radio procedures at uncontrolled
and controlled airports, traffic spacing, wind shear and wake
Materials: Airport/Facilities Directory (A/FD), HANDOUT on traffic pattern
INTRODUCTION: Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
Landing: This is the part that's going to seem really busy. Don't worry: everyone goes through that. The more we practice it, the easier it will become, until landing becomes the most fun part of flying.
DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation: (30 minutes)
Discuss: wind shear, wake turbulence
I. Communication at uncontrolled airport: announce 10 miles out, 5 miles out, entering the downwind, turning base, turning final, clearing or taking the runway
II. Orientation at uncontrolled airport:
1. By default, they are left patterns, involving keeping the runway to your left, and making left turns (left close traffic). If not, it will be noted on the sectional and in the A/FD (e.g. Keene).
2. The A/FD also contains information about traffic pattern altitude, lighting, etc.
3. At uncontrolled airports, fly overhead at 1000 ft above the traffic pattern. Look for the windsock. Get the ASOS. Ask the Unicom for the active runway.
4. Get away from the airport, down to TPA, and fly to the downwind leg of the pattern at a 45º angle. Look hard for traffic, announce on the radio and join the downwind. You will get used to what that looks like, with experience.
APPROACH AND LANDING:
I. Simple: Airspeed, altitude, ailerons! Everything in the TP comes down to airspeed and altitude: rotate, climbout, downwind, base, final, touchdown. What do we use to control airspeed and altitude? Pitch, throttle, flaps
II. Detailed (but keep emphasizing the simple as per above). Use handout. Start on runway after pre-takeoff checklist
1. Ailerons for wind & 1, 2, 3: mix props throttle
2. Check oil pressure & airspeed ind: Hand on throttle
3. Rotate: hold that attitude
4. Climb at Vy. Right rudder, trim, and track.
5. PUFF, checklist
6. Clear. Turn crosswind & compensate for wind
7. Clear. Turn downwind. Power back to 22/2100
8. Pre-landing checklist: BGUMPS (except P)
9. Abeam: power 17", one notch flaps, pitch for final +10, trim
10. Turn base: Clear. Crab. Second notch flaps, pitch for final +5, trim GUMPS
11. Turn final: Clear. Rest of flaps if above 300 AGL, pitch for best glide, trim, GUMPS
12. Pitch and power for airspeed/altitude. CROSSWIND: Ailerons for centerline, rudder for alignment. If there's a gusty wind, come in with a bit more airspeed than usual. Touchdown point becomes horizon.
13. Reduce power to idle (unless gusty). Flare: hold it off
14. Touch down, keep nose up.
15. Gently bring nose down and brake
16. Get off runway: after-landing checklist
III. Simple again. Airspeed and altitude: OK, and also GUMPS
1. It is better to go around than to try to save a poor approach.
2. If another aircraft is still on the runway, then you must go around.
3. Wake turbulence, wind shear, unexpected hazards could trigger a go-around
4. PUFF: Power, undercarriage, flaps (wing), flaps (cowl). The first notch of flaps can be removed immediately. The other two notches come out one at a time when a positive rate of climb is established.
5. More right rudder! Trim for Vy
Armchair piloting: (10 minutes)
Several times, imagine going through the entire traffic pattern. Instructor coaches a lot at first, and by the end of practice, the student should be able to envision almost all of it without prompting.
Common errors: (5 minutes)
Failure to comply with ATC instructions
Improper entry or communications
Improper wind-drift correction
Improper consideration of other traffic
Poor altitude or airspeed control
Exceeding performance data and limitations
Approach and configuration in improper sequence
Removal of hand from throttle
Poor directional control
Failure to recognize need for a go-around
Improper power and control application
Not enough torque correction
Improper retraction of flaps and gear
Too close to obstructions or traffic
Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions:
Q: What is Vy for this aircraft? What is Vx? What is final approach speed?
Q: Why aren't flaps just removed altogether, quickly, during a go-around?
Q: Where does the right hand go during takeoff? Why?
Q: What is "crabbing"?
Q: What is the purpose of flaps?
Q: What controls altitude? What controls airspeed?
Q: What checklists are there?
Q: When do you need to communicate in the controlled/uncontrolled environment?
Q: What situations might prompt a go-around?
Q: How do you use flight controls on final, in any sort of crosswind?
Q: Who has the right-of-way? Lower aircraft, or aircraft on final.
Q: Should you do straight-in landings?