An understanding of wind drift as demonstrated by the ability to maintain a constant distance while turning around a point. Learning to divide attention inside and outside the aircraft so as to continuously consider the reference point, other traffic, and aircraft attitude and altitude.
This is an exercise in the difference between the aircraft's motion in the air, and its ground tracking. The student must learn to control the plane with reference to the ground, by compensating for wind. St will learn to shallow the bank when upwind of the point, and steepen it when downwind, so as to maintain a ground-track of a steady radius, and a constant altitude.
Airworthy aircraft. PTS.
Ground lesson: 21 minutes
The flight lesson can be with other maneuvers.
Instructor demonstration: 10 minutes
Student practice: 30 minutes
Postflight feedback: 5 minutes
Preflight: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, have student be an armchair pilot, list common errors, discuss.
In flight: Demonstrate proper turns around a point while talking through them. Coach and encourage student.
Postflight: Give feedback and suggestions.
Preflight: Attend to explanation, be an armchair pilot, answer questions
In flight: Perform new maneuvers after demonstration
Postflight: Ask questions.
Review: Rectangular pattern.
Objective: St will learn to maintain a constant ground distance from a reference point by compensating for the wind.
Materials: Diagram on page 6-8 of the AFH, model plane.
Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
In Hawaii, we would occasionally see whales breaching. When you spot whales from above, you're going to want to circle them precisely and compensate for wind drift. OK, so this may not happen a lot, but you are going to be flying in wind and have to turn (e.g. in the pattern) and compensate for it. This will also help you later on in life when you become a pilot for a skydiving school.
The other important element of this is division of attention-of particular importance in an untowered traffic pattern. You're going to have to compensate for wind drift, maintain awareness of your position in reference to the landing point, AND look for traffic.
Overview and explanation: (10 minutes)
This is an exercise in the difference between the aircraft's motion in the air, and its ground tracking. It resembles the rectangular course except that the course corrections are constant. The student must learn to control the plane with reference to the ground, by compensating for wind. Keep eyes inside (altimeter, mostly) and outside cockpit (both to look at point and to look around) during the maneuver.
1. Clear the area
2. Power set to cruise. Boost pump on
3. Select an altitude of 600-1000 AGL and pick a reference point. (Include an emergency landing place in considerations.)
4. Determine wind direction: smoke, flags, shiny shore of water, ATIS, or the plane
5. Enter on downwind, ¼ to ½ mile away, with maximum bank 45 degrees.
6. Reduce bank angle gradually during downwind arc. Point remains in front of wing. (Eyes inside and outside. Stay coordinated)
7. Minimum bank is directly upwind. Gradually increase on upwind arc. Point remains behind the wing.
8. Make a second circle, and exit at the initial heading. Reverse course as instructed.
Maintain altitude +/-100 ft, and airspeed +/-10
Armchair piloting: (5 minutes)
Where is the ground reference point in terms of the wing? Where is the plane banked most and where least?
Common errors: (2 minutes)
Area not cleared first
No emergency landing area in glide distance
Aircraft not set up for cruise
Poor planning, orientation, or division of attention
Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions: (3
Q: What altitude should we be at?
Q: What are the considerations for selecting a reference point?
Q: Where is the ground reference point in terms of the wing?
Q: Where is the plane banked most and where least?
Q: How many turns do you do?