Objective: Student understanding of unusual attitude conditions and recovery from them. THE WORLD ACCORDING TO BYRON: "Attitude is everything." This lesson can be combined with the basic attitude instrument work.
Content: Conditions and situations that result in unusual flight attitudes, recognition, control sequence for recover from nose-high and nose-low attitudes.
Airworthy aircraft. PTS. Visual aid (AFH p. 9-7)
Ground lesson: 10 minutes
Student practice: 10 minutes
Postflight feedback: 3 minutes
Preflight: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, have student be an armchair pilot, list common errors, discuss.
In flight: Recovery can be demonstrated in visual conditions. Get student in unusual attitude while under the hood, and have student practice the proper order of recovery. Coach and encourage students.
Postflight: Give feedback and suggestions.
Preflight: Attend to explanation, be an armchair pilot, answer questions.
In flight: Perform new maneuver.
Postflight: Ask questions.
Student recognizes unusual attitude solely by reference to instruments and recovers to a stabilized, level flight attitude using proper control sequence and instrument cross check.
Review: Basic attitude instrument cross-check
Objective: Conditions and situations that result in unusual flight attitudes, recognition, control sequence for recovery from nose-high and nose-low attitudes.
Materials: AFH p. 9-7
INTRODUCTION: Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
You have seen, or will see, the result of not keeping up the scan in instrument conditions. Now imagine getting really distracted with a radio or a chart or kids fighting in the back or something. At some point it occurs to you that the engine sounds a bit loud, or a bit quiet, you look back at your instruments and Recover! Once again: this is for practice for an emergency situation only.
DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation: (3 minutes)
Two basic unusual attitudes: nose high, and nose low, with or without a turn.
First recognize which one, by a scan of all the instruments. (The attitude indicator is first, but not sole, because it may have precessed or spun or be broken.)
The proper order of recover is:
1. Nose high: Throttle up and push nose down, level wings (avoiding the stall)
2. Nose low: Throttle back, level the wings, then pull nose up (avoiding steepening the turn)
Note that in both cases, throttle comes first. Apply controls quickly and smoothly, but without panic. As always in instrument flight, do not trust your kinesthetic sense: trust the instruments.
Armchair piloting: (2 minutes)
Scenarios: nose high, and nose low. One scenario involves looking at the instrument picture, AFH 9-7
Common errors: (2 minutes)
Inability to recognize unusual attitude
Improper control sequence
Throttling up instead of down, or vice versa
Flying by feel, rather than by instruments
Fixation, omission, emphasis
Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions:
Q: What is the order of control for a nose-high attitude?
Q: What is the order of control for a nose-low attitude?